• With the new protocol books for ACP: under the hyperkalemia directive there is no dosage of salbutamol. Was this a printing error or are we no longer giving salbutamol. 

    Published On: December 11, 2023
  • If a patient is suffering a medical event in nature, and goes VSA (for the first time, NOT a re-arrest) en route to the hospital, do we pull over and run the arrest for 20 minutes, or would we use clinical consideration that egress has commenced, and do one analysis and continue transport (under the circumstance that pt at that time is in a non shockable rhythm)? 

    Published On: December 8, 2023
  • Are ACPs still allowed to do EJs on patients that we are unable to get IVs on? 

    Published On: December 6, 2023
  • In regards to medications with a condition of “unaltered”, should we be administering these if the pt is GCS 15, then has a syncopal episode (or other altered period) in your care and then returns to GCS 15? An example would be a chest pain call where you want to treat with ASA and Ondansetron. Is it a case of “once you’re out you’re out” or would it still be appropriate to treat as they have now returned to an unaltered state? Thanks

    Published On: October 12, 2023
  • Question: Can a paramedic in the field rule out ischemic chest pain and not treat with ASA/Nitro due to the chest pain being reproducible? (eg. worse on deep inspiration but radiating down the left arm/shoulder, and sharp pain in left upper chest and pressure across the lower chest). I recently had this call, and was told that you can rule it out based on it being reproducible, but the history and rhythm strip, clinical presentation was leaning more towards cardiac.

    Published On: September 13, 2023
  • In the latest version of the companion document (v5.1) the following is stated “For a witnessed arrest in the back of the ambulance paramedics should use clinical judgment to decide whether to stay and perform resuscitation or proceed to hospital. Paramedic should perform three full analysis and then proceed/patch or to provide one analysis and go. The paramedic should provide at minimum one analysis. Factors that are part of the decision process include distance to closest hospital, probable cause of arrest, ability to provide adequate CPR/ventilation, shockable vs non-shockable etc..”. I was told during my recert in November that this scenario would warrant a 20 minute resuscitation. Can you please clarify.

    Published On: September 13, 2023
  • If My patient goes VSA in the back of the truck (witnessed, first time VSA). We do not do 20 min CPR? Or we do 3 analysis and go after? And/or 1 analysis and go? Does the same apply witness VSA in the home? Do these require patch to leave early? There has been excessive talk over this and little clarification.

    Published On: September 13, 2023
  • Refractory V-fib for the new medical cardiac VSA directive. Are we to only get our three shocks and go. Or can we give an additional shock if time permits due to extrication or extenuating circumstances? Just looking for clarification.

    Published On: September 13, 2023
  • If we pick up a patient and the patient presents with a positive 12-lead STEMI and you are travelling to the PCI Center and the patient codes, do we run the full 20 minute cardiac arrest protocol, or could you consider STEMI as a reversible cause (Hs and Ts) , analyze once and head to the closest receiving which may not be the PCI due to distance.

    Published On: September 13, 2023
  • Hello, with the changes to PCP medical cardiac arrest, since there is no longer a maximum number of analysis are we expected to continue to analysis the rhythm every two minutes on route to hospital if were transporting?. Seems like it would delay our arrival time a fair bit to pull over every two minutes especially in the county. Also, if a confirmed STEMI codes on route, should we be running a full 20 minute resuscitation before continuing transport, or would that be considered a reversible cause to transport after one analysis?. Thanks

    Published On: September 13, 2023
  • The new Medical Cardiac Arrest Directive requires 20 minutes of resuscitation on scene. Point # 5 of the Primary Clinical Consideration(s) states …or other known reversible cause of arrest not addressed. My question has to do with refractory PEA and the amount of potential reversible causes (7 Hs 5 Ts). Would it be reasonable to patch for request of early transport in the presence of 3 consecutive analysis of PEA?

    Published On: September 13, 2023
  • There has been a lot of debate in regard to the new medical cardiac arrest directive, especially when it comes to pediatric patients (1 day to less than 8 years old). Based on my understanding of the new directive, patients 24 hours old now fall under medical cardiac arrest which states that scene time is now 20 minutes unless you have a reversible cause or 3 consecutive shocks, since TOR would not apply here. Some paramedics express significant discomfort staying on scene for that long if the patient has been stabilized with good airway, quality compressions, and possibly defibrillation. Do you support paramedics leaving early in this setting where everything is done early or do you encourage us to stay on scene for 20 minutes? Does this benefit the patient when they could be receiving life saving drugs in a hospital, also knowing that we will eventually have to transport to a hospital no matter what?

    Published On: September 13, 2023
  • Can you please clarify the CPR ratio for different ages with the new neonatal resuscitation changed from 30 days to 24 hours. At what age are we performing 3:1 CPR, 15:2. and 30:2?

    Published On: September 13, 2023
  • What is the SWORBHP stance on administering salbutamol in patients with suspected ACPE? Most of us have been traditionally taught that salbutamol in patients presenting with crackles due to suspected ACPE is a negative thing because of the bronchodilation and the risk of flooding a patient. However, there are many studies that argue salbutamol administration could be beneficial. Especially in situations where patients are presenting with both wheezes and crackles, it can get confusing. Where does SWORBHP stand on this topic?

    Published On: May 19, 2023
  • In regards to the cardiac ischemia medical directive, the latest indication is now suspected cardiac ischemia. If you have a pt presenting with all signs and symptoms of cardiac ischemia, have given ASA, established an IV, and have given NTG. If the pt’s symptoms improve after administration of NTG should you continue with the directive to the full amount of doses provided the pt still meets the conditions?

    Published On: May 19, 2023
  • Hello, what are the criteria for identifying hypothermia in a VSA patient? This affects our treatment under ALS PCS 5.1 whether we consider early transport after one analysis. The situation that brought up this discussion was a patient who had been on the floor indoors for a number of days, but still presented with a hypothermic body temperature. If the patient had been found VSA, how would we identify to treat them under the full medical cardiac arrest, or be considered for early transport?

    Published On: May 19, 2023
  • Why is diabetic ketoacidosis different than hyperosmolar state?

    Published On: April 17, 2023
  • For acetaminophen and ibuprofen, suspected ischemic chest pain is listed as a contraindication. Is this listed mainly to indicate that ischemic chest pain should not be treated with the analgesia directive? Could analgesics be administered to treat a different area of pain that is occurring at the same time as the chest pain that appears to be unrelated? For example, I had a patient with chronic pain that she takes acetaminophen for, but she was experiencing acute chest pain suspected to be ischemic. Would it be correct to withhold acetaminophen in this case and not provide treatment for the chronic pain that she is experiencing at the same time as suspected cardiac ischemia?

    Published On: April 17, 2023
  • Why are we waiting to implement the cardiac arrest medical directive changes until Feb?

    Published On: March 13, 2023
  • For ALS-PCS 5.0: If a patient re-arrested prior to extrication, do we carry out another 20 minutes of resuscitation or do we go after first analysis?

    Published On: March 13, 2023
  • Can I attempt the Valsalva on a patient who has chest pain? What if the patient has a clear onset of palpitations, then after onset develops chest pain and or shortness of breath?

    Published On: March 13, 2023
  • My question is in regards to when an IV certified medic is working with a non-certified medic. If the certified medic establishes IV access and has a lock in place, but doesnt give any fluids or medications can the non-certified medic still continue to attend the call? Or does the certified one become the attending. Specific example would be a Code Stroke where we established IV access prior to leaving scene, but it was originally the non-certified medics call.

    Published On: October 4, 2022
  • Should we consider cocaine induced chest pain as ischemic and be treating with ASA and NTG? Example: 20 year old male patient midsternal chest tightness. Admits to using cocaine and the symptoms occurring after that. I guess my question is, is the cocaine causing ischemia which causes the chest pain?

    Published On: September 29, 2022
  • hello when treating a pt with adenosine the contra indications are active bronchial constriction on exam, the companion document also states that adenosine can cause bronchial constriction in asthmatic pts. so may question is … is an asthmatic pt contraindicated for adenosine tx or is more of a relative vs absolute situation

    Published On: July 21, 2022
  • When administering a fluid bolus to a cardiogenic shock patient, what is our targeted systolic blood pressure? Is it similar to that of a ROSC to target 90 mmHg, or reversing hypotension and targeting 100 mmHg?

    Published On: June 20, 2022
  • Is it safe to use blanket warmers in the vehicles for warming IV fluids? I know that the infusion of ambient temperature (21°C) intravenous fluid may be a significant risk factor for severe hypothermia and the manufacturer of our IV fluids recommends a 40 °C for a max of 14 days. Do you know if this is being done anywhere effectively and safely and if so what are they using?

    Published On: June 20, 2022
  • So we had a call to a burn victim that was grossly charred, but was breathing. He started to deteriorate in transport but we made it to the hospital. I was wondering if he were to arrest if that would be a traumatic VSA, I know it’s not a blunt or penetrating trauma but it doesn’t make much sense as a medical cardiac arrest either. Also could a patient meet the standards for an obvious death after patient contact?

    Published On: June 20, 2022
  • If a patient is given first time Nitro by a PCP IV but then isnt ever actually prescribed nitro by a doctor does this count as prior hx of nitro use? Could a then PCP non IV give this pt nitro the next time they call?

    Published On: March 30, 2022
  • Does cpap have to be used with nitro

    Published On: March 30, 2022
  • Hello, How would you like us to proceed with a young pt (say under 30) who complains of chest pain and describes it as ischemic pain, saying all the right things ex; pressure, heaviness etc. But who is vitally stable and doesnt not appear to be in any distress or severe pain. Would you still like us to treat it as ischemia on the side of caution even though its most likely anxiety/stess etc ?

    Published On: March 30, 2022
  • If an IV medic attempts to start an IV on pt and the attempt(s) are unsuccessful do they have to remain the attending medic or can the non IV medic continue to attend the call?

    Published On: March 30, 2022
  • Hello, I have a question regarding the 4th analysis when youre actively calling for a medical TOR. If theyre around Ill speak with family to give them an update on what weve been doing, that Im going to call and doctor and what the outcome of that phone call may be. Often, after Ive had that chat, and made the call by the time Im back the 2mins has passed and a 4th analysis may have been done by my partner. What would you like to see happen there. Do we perform that 4th analysis or is that only performed just prior to departure if were transporting. Thanks for your help.

    Published On: March 30, 2022
  • When dealing with an anaphylactic patient, the PCP medical directive says to administer up to 2 doses of epi at a maximum single dose of 0.5mg, whereas the bronchoconstriction AND cardiac arrest medical directives are only one dose at a maximum single dose of 0.5mg. Can some explain why?

    Published On: January 19, 2022
  • Does a prescription of NTG patch count as previous history of use for NTG spray? Would it be a concern that the medication would be administered through a different route and therefore have a different onset of effect?

    Published On: January 19, 2022
  • I have had a few calls to nursing homes where the patients IV fell out and the patient is being sent to the hospital for an IV restart. If the patient does not have any complaints otherwise, would an IV certified crew be able to start the IV and patch to not have the patient transported? If so, would this be documented as a refusal? I have always transported these patients but it would be helpful to know if there are other options to avoid an unnecessary trip to the hospital. Thank you!

    Published On: January 19, 2022
  • The AHA and COVID-19 guideline has a caveat that states in “suspected or confirmed COVID-19 cases” we should implement the prescribed practices. In the event that the patient in cardiac arrest is not confirmed or suspected to have COVID-19 symptoms is it reasonable to every to pre-pandemic practice of resuscitation?

    Published On: January 19, 2022
  • Follow-up question that was asked on 29-Jan-2021 about pulse checks after no shock is indicated. Base hospital answered that pulse checks should occur concurrently with each rhythm analysis. Is this true for those of us that are using S-AEDs rather than manual rhythm analysis? The reason I ask is because First Aid & CPR courses suggest that touching a patient during an AED analysis will introduce artifact that could affect the accuracy of the analysis.

    Published On: January 19, 2022
  • I have recently read about recommendations/suggestion for the use of the distal femur as an alternative IO access sites specifically in pediatrics. Is this being considered as an option in Ontario?

    Published On: November 3, 2021
  • Hello and thank you for your time everyone. Module 2 point 2 reinforces the concept that high quality CPR is the primary focus for care of an opioid overdose VSA patient. However, It also highlights that naloxone may be administered as long as AHA guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation are adequately being met. Given this point; is it o.k. for paramedics to administer naloxone for these type of VSA patients? The directive book and phone application Medical Cardiac Arrest directive continues to state, “There is no clear role for routine administration of naloxone in confirmed cardiac arrest”. I found it a little unclear whether this segment was reinforcing the concept to not administering naloxone for a VSA patient, or providing guidance that it is acceptable as long as other aspects of care are effectively delivered.

    Published On: November 3, 2021
  • What is the correct course of action if a pt goes VSA while crew is on scene, (ex. 1st analyses reveals VF, pt shocked, then 2 more analyses 2 min apart- both PEA), then pt starts spontaneously breathing and has pulse (ROSC)…then rearrests 2 min later and is in VF so crew shocks…CPR continued as pt still pulseless. Keep in mind crew is still on scene waiting for fire to show up as crew needs help with extrication.. this situation has happened and 1 crew member had called BHP for direction as it’s ‘grey” area as normally you are transporting by then and would do 1 analysis following rearrest and shock if necessary and continue with transport/CPR.. BHP was not clear just kept saying “follow your protocol” when in fact the crew was but at that point was very “grey”. Would we treat it as a whole new medical cardiac arrest protocol as its a re-arrest on scene until fire arrives? Or what would be the best course of action?

    Published On: September 17, 2021
  • I had a patient who met the criteria for Nitro administration under the ACPE directive. The initial BP was 104/72, with no previous Nitro use, and unable to obtain IV access. The pts blood pressure in the back went up to 143/88 while in the back of the ambulance… can nitro be given now that the blood pressure has increased, even if the pt started <140 SBP?

    Published On: August 5, 2021
  • Given that rapid atrial fibrillation and other tachydysrhythmias can result from myocardial ischemia; is it wise to provide ASA to these patients as a precaution. I am a PCP, and we dont have a defined treatment for pulsed tachycardia.

    Published On: August 5, 2021
  • For the IV bolus directive when one of the contraindications is fluid overload, if a patient has CHF and is presenting hypotensive, and is not experiencing SOB but has chronic edema in his/her feet/legs is that technically a contraindication to not bolus? Considering that would fall under fluid overload ? What are the signs and symptoms of fluid overload you guys are wanting us to look out for and be aware of?

    Published On: August 5, 2021
  • Can you TOR someone who is in PEA

    Published On: August 5, 2021
  • In regards to an IV that you have established are other medical professionals allowed to use it to give drugs on way to hospital? Back story, picked up a female patient who had just given birth with significant post partum hemorrhage. Midwife onscene was unable to establish a line but you subsequently start one. Midwife wants to push oxytocin through the IV that you have established is this OK?

    Published On: August 5, 2021
  • With regards to pediatric resuscitation, are we to use the pediatric setting on the zoll for only less than 8 years old, or for >30 days to onset puberty? I was reading old Q&A for this, and it was made to seem like we only use the pediatric setting for less than 8 on the zoll, and anything older than that use the adult setting

    Published On: March 30, 2021
  • Just a question regarding a pediatric VSA. I was reading some other askmac questions and noticed they had said we use the pediatric defib setting for kids under 8, however if the child is over 8 and less than the onset of puberty, does that mean were still using the pediatric defibrillation setting or the adult setting on the semi-auto zoll?

    Published On: March 30, 2021
  • My question is can you TOR an opioid overdose cardiac arrest. The question came up recently and it seemed a simple yes because opioid overdose cardiac arrests are to be run as a standard medical arrest. However, some people have referenced the “very early transport after one analysis… for medication overdose/ toxicology.” This is further confused by the 1-Mar-2012 Ask MAC submission where it was stated you could not obtain a TOR on an OD (but did not specify what type of OD). I am hoping you can provide some clarification on obtaining a TOR during an opioid overdose VSA.

    Published On: March 30, 2021
  • Question: Good afternoon. I just have a question regarding a VSA patient scenario. If the patient has a pulse with an SGA inserted (patient tolerates SGA) to give ventilations, how many ventilations would I give? 1 every 10 seconds or 1 every 5-6 seconds? And do I also wear an N95 mask?

    Published On: March 4, 2021
  • Question: Could you please give clarification – On a VSA of a suspected opioid overdose, can we leave after the 1st analysis? Half my co-workers say yes and the other half says no, that you must stay to complete 4 analysis. I understand that early transport can be considered in medication overdose/toxicology. Where we are having difficulty with the interpretation of the protocol is “In cardiac arrest associated with opioid overdose, continue standard medical cardiac arrest directive. There is no clear role for routine administration of naloxone in confirmed cardiac arrest”. Some medics are saying that the “continue standard medical arrest directive ” means to complete 4 analysis. My interpretation is, no narcan and continue protocol, which is to consider early departure. Thanks

    Published On: March 4, 2021